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80         HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

3, EDUCATION IN THE SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES

Up to the beginning of the Second Century the educational
activities of the emperors after Augustus were mainly inspired
by their personal interest in learning, or by their desire for
popularity, rather than by any clear conception of the needs
of the Empire or by any broad considerations of policy.   With
Hadrian  (117-138),  Antoninus  Pius  (138-161),  and   Marcus
Aurelius (161-180), the method of occasional intervention ceased
and a great system of education, as broadspread and as well-
ordered as the Empire itself, was created.   In Hadrian's case,
the moving impulse was a passionate admiration for everything
Greek, which won for him the epithet " Grseculus."    Greek
philosophers and teachers everywhere were the objects of his
special care.    He confirmed and extended the privileges and
immunities conferred on them by previous emperors, and took
a keen interest in their work.   In Rome he established the
Athenaeum, as a meeting-place for Greek and Roman men of
letters and a centre of the higher learning.  In Alexandria he gave
his patronage to the Museum and nominated several of his
scholar friends to its membership.   But it was Greece, and above
all the beloved Athens, that stood highest in his favour.   Besides
rearing many splendid buildings for religious and educational
purposes, he gave such encouragement to her teachers that
Athens once more resumed her proud pre-eminence as a seat of
learning.  The work begun by Hadrian was continued in the same
generous spirit by Antoninus.   He, indeed, may be regarded as
the real founder of the imperial system of education.   With a
wider vision of the requirements of the whole Empire than any
of his predecessors, he put the obligation of paying salaries and
giving privileges to special teachers on the municipalities in all
the provinces.   The capital cities, he decreed, had to maintain
ten physicians, five sophists, and five grammarians; the larger
cities in which the courts had their sessions, seven physicians,
four sophists, and four grammarians;  the smaller cities, five
physicians, three sophists, and three grammarians.    The ap-
pointment of these men was left in the hands of the municipal
councils, with the reservation of certain rights of control which
presumably were most definite in those cases where the cities
were too poor to meet the cost and received help from the central